Diabetes in Pregnancy- Patient education information

Health Topic

SHRI SWAMI DIABETES, THYROID AND ENDOCRINE SUPERSPECIALITY CENTRE 
Diabetes in Pregnancy
What is Gestational diabetes?
It refers to diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy. It is also known as Gestational diabetes. In the majority of
cases, it goes away with delivery but it increases the further risk of diabetes in mothers. If not treated during
pregnancy can affect the baby and mother.
How common is it?
In India, nearly 5 to 15% of women develop diabetes during pregnancy. Those with marked obesity, history
of GDM in a previous pregnancy, PCOD, or a strong family history of diabetes are at increased risk of
diabetes.
How it is diagnosed?
It is diagnosed based on a glucose tolerance test in which blood samples are withdrawn after giving
glucose to drink.
Why it is important to treat it?
Diabetes in pregnancy has an impact on the baby and mother. If diabetes occurs early in pregnancy it can
result in defects in the heart, nervous system.
If it occurs late in pregnancy it can result in macrosomia(large baby), post-delivery increased risk of
hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and jaundice to a baby. Besides, diabetes can result in sudden fetal
death.
It increases the risk of hypertension during pregnancy. Also, it increases the risk of future diabetes in the next
pregnancy. The women with GDM have a high risk of diabetes in later life.
How it is treated?
In the majority of cases, diabetes can be controlled with diet modification, regular walking. In the rest of the cases,
the patient requires medicine like Metformin and Insulin. These patients require frequent glucose
monitoring.
What is good sugar control?
The target glucose levels are different from other diabetes. The fasting sugar below 95 mg/dl and post
prandial sugar less than 120mg/dl is needed.
Are glucometers accurate?
The glucometer readings are fairly accurate, The slight variation of readings as compared to lab results is
accepted. If there is a large deviation consult your doctor.
Is Insulin Safe in pregnancy?
Yes. Because it is not transferred across the placenta.
Is Metformin safe in pregnancy?
Yes Though it crosses placenta the current research suggests no harmful effect on the baby.
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